How Deserts Are Formed ?
When we look at the world map, it is covered with those beautiful looking blue oceans, those white polar caps, beautiful green lands and some brown parts. Every portion of this blue ocean, the brown deserts, those beautiful green lands make the world a beautiful place to live in.
But have you ever wondered how those deserts are formed. What causes those brown areas that we see in the map? The main reason on how this deserts are formed is due to the formation of rainforest areas.
First let’s understand how this rainforest areas are formed.
We all know the major portion of deserts is in Africa and Australia whereas the European region is not covered with deserts. So what is the reason behind this differences? In 1735, George Hadley a London lawyer and meteorologist tried to explain why there are rainforest areas near the equator and deserts just north and south of it.
Rainforests are almost self-watering. What do you mean by this self-watering? Plants release water into the atmosphere. The moisture created helps to form a thick cloud which covers the rain forests. Rainforest seems to be highest near the equator. This is because the sun warms the earth most at the equator. Hence the air to the north and south remains cooler keeping the atmosphere denser.
The warm air from north and south moves in the middle and not stopping there but heading upwards. As this warm air heads upwards it starts cooling, and because cool air cannot hold as much moisture as compared to warm air, it starts raining heavily. This heavy rains is enough to make a rainforest.
The air rising up creates a ceiling after reaching an altitude of about 17 kilometers and starts to spread out in the northern and southern region. As this air moves away in these regions it starts becoming denser and slightly cooler, until it finally dries up. When the air starts drying up, it creates an arid band where this deserts come into existence.
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